The Pershing Story - The Big Picture
He is most famous for serving as commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Also known as the First World War, World War I was a global war that was centered in Europe.
The conflict began on July 28, 1914, and lasted until November 11, 1918.
It was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, on June 28, 1914.
Alliances between countries were tested and war soon erupted.
The two opposing alliances were the Allies and the Central Powers.
The Allies consisted of the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire.
The Central Powers were Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Other countries were later drawn into the conflict, including the United States, which supported the Allies and entered the war on April 6, 1917.
More than sixteen million died during the war and twenty million others were wounded.
The National World War I Museum is located in Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri.
These troops from America bolstered the spirits of European allies and helped defeat the Central Powers in 1918.
He and George Washington are the only two people who have received this honor.
Pershing's hometown of Laclede in Linn County, Missouri.
Standing left to right : John J.
Census showing John and his family.
John had eight younger siblings, but only five survived to adulthood: May, Elizabeth, Grace, Ward, and James.
His father owned a general store and served as postmaster of Laclede.
Over-investment in the countries' railroads and other unregulated investing after the Civil War contributed to a national economic depression.
It was called a "panic" because people feared that their banks would go out of business and that they needed to withdraw their money quickly, before it was lost.
The depression lasted until click the following article />When the economic crisis hit, the elder Pershing was unable to pay back the loans and watched helplessly as the banks foreclosed on all but one blackjack double down split his farms.
The Pershings lost almost all of their wealth.
Fourteen-year-old John was put in charge of the family while his father was on the road.
He was expected to make the family farm profitable and attend school.
The Normal Building at Kirksville State Normal School around the time Pershing attended.
Once he had saved enough money, John enrolled at Kirksville Normal School now Truman State University.
He graduated in 1880 with a teaching degree.
John returned to Prairie Mound School after graduation.
He soon decided, however, that he wanted to be a lawyer and returned to Kirksville to study law.
Military Academy at West Point, New York.
Most people refer to the United States Military Academy as West Point.
West Point is a site on the Hudson River north of New York City.
The United States Military Academy has been located there since 1802.
Young people who want to attend the academy must be nominated by a member of Congress or by the army itself.
The coursework is challenging.
Unlike most colleges, each cadet must also participate in demanding physical training.
At the end of a four-year program, successful cadets are awarded a bachelor of sciences degree.
They are also commissioned as second lieutenants, the lowest officer's rank in the army.
Military Academy at West Point, John decided to take the test to earn a free education.
His sister Elizabeth helped him study.
Only one person in the congressional district would win an appointment.
Pershing earned the top exam score by a narrow margin and entered West Point in July 1882.
While Pershing struggled academically his first year at West Point, he was determined to succeed.
Although he graduated thirtieth out of a class of seventy-seven in 1886, he was elected class president four years in a row.
Geronimo after his capture by U.
As an Apache medicine man and military leader, he fought against the Mexican and United States governments over rights to traditional Apache land.
Known as a fierce and brave leader, Geronimo resisted government efforts to move his people to the reservation.
He finally surrendered to General Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, on September 4, 1886.
In his first assignment with the Sixth Cavalry, he was stationed in New Mexico and Arizona where he fought Apaches led by Geronimo.
Pershing next participated in the campaign to subdue the Sioux, or Lakota, tribes in the Dakota Territory where the U.
A confrontation at Wounded Knee between the Lakota and the military resulted in gunfire.
Between 200 and 300 Sioux men, women, and children were killed, along with 25-30 soldiers.
The incident later became known as the The Seventh Cavalry opens fire on the Lakota people at Wounded Knee.
The Ghost Dance By the late 1800s, the United States government confined most Native American tribes to overcrowded reservations without adequate food or shelter.
The Ghost Dance movement became popular among the Plains and Southwestern tribes because it promised to remove all the white people and restore their traditional way of life.
The Ghost Dance movement died out quickly after the Wounded Knee Massacre.
He maintained his enthusiasm for learning about his adversaries throughout his military career.
While serving a four-year stint as a professor of military science at the University of Nebraska, Pershing earned a law degree in 1893.
He later blackjack pershing apush a family acquaintance from Laclede that he felt his law degree helped him with his military career.
Pershing during the time he served as a major with the Tenth Cavalry.
At the time, blacks were segregated from whites in the military.
Pershing was then assigned to teach at West Point.
When the The United States declared war on Spain April 25, 1898, to end Spanish occupation of Cuba.
Cuba was considered important to America for strategic and economic reasons.
By August of 1898, Spain wanted peace and the two countries agreed to a cease-fire.
blackjack dealer caught cheating peace treaty was signed December 10, 1898.
This treaty allowed for Cuban independence and ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States.
He often praised the black soldiers to others, an unusual thing to do during this time.
Map of the Philippines with the area in which the Moros live highlighted.
Beginning in 1899, Pershing was stationed there for three and a half years.
The fighting was difficult and flared off and on for several years.
One of the tribes even named Pershing a minor noble.
After returning from his first tour in the Philippines, Pershing met and married Helen Frances Warren, the daughter of U.
They had four children: Helen, Ann, Warren, and Margaret.
President Theodore Roosevelt promoted Pershing in 1906 to brigadier general, a jump in rank of four blackjack pershing apush />The promotion was controversial because Pershing bypassed more than eight hundred senior this web page />President Roosevelt, however, had suggested the promotion three years earlier, before Pershing had met the Warren family.
Pershing returned to the Philippines for a second tour from 1906 to 1913.
Once again, he used force and his knowledge of his adversaries to quiet the rebelling Moro tribes.
Pershing with his son Warren around the time of World War I.
Two years later, while Pershing was on assignment in Texas, he received the news that his Photograph published in the San Francisco Chronicle on August 28, 1915, after the death of Pershing's wife and three learn more here, Helen 8Ann 6 and Margaret 3.
Only his son Warren survived.
Pershing was devastated by the loss, and those who knew him said he never fully recovered.
He distracted himself by becoming immersed in his work.
Letter from General Pershing to General E.
Crowder concerning the search for Pancho Villa, June 15, 1916.
Crowder concerning the search for Pancho Villa, June 15, 1916.
In response, President Woodrow Wilson ordered Pershing to capture Villa.
The expedition continue reading Mexico began on March 15, 1916.
Pershing and his soldiers experienced harsh conditions.
Their supplies soon ran low, and the Mexican government forbade them from using rail lines to transport troops and supplies.
The terrain was extremely rugged and mountainous.
The area was also unmapped and had no roads, so the expedition had to rely on local guides.
Several skirmishes took place that resulted in the U.
President Wilson worried that a war might start.
Eventually, Pershing was ordered to stop the expedition.
This greatly frustrated him as he had spent almost a year in Mexico pursuing Villa, but was never able to catch him.
Standing to the left of Pershing is Joseph Joffre, Marshal of France.
Also pictured are Raymond Poincare second from right and Paul Deschanel extreme right.
While the continent quickly sank into one of the most deadly wars in history, the United States did not become involved right away.
At the time, the country had a policy to remain neutral during conflicts.
The United States finally entered the war in 1917.
General Pershing reviews troops during World War I.
He had to make many decisions, such as how large the AEF should grow, how to organize supplies, where the AEF should fight in Europe, and when his troops would be ready for combat.
Pershing's 1918 Thanksgiving address to American soldiers was printed in the St.
When the AEF arrived in Europe, the Allies were exhausted from three years of war.
He believed the strategy would not work because the training methods used by the U.
He also thought that a united American military force would hurt German morale more.
Despite opposition, Pershing stood firm in his decision.
An article from the St.
Louis Globe-Democrat on Pershing's return from World War I and his desire to get back to Missouri, September 13, 1919.
Louis Post-Dispatch and also concerns Pershing's return from World War I and his desire to get back to Missouri, September 13, 1919.
Louis Post-Dispatch, September 13, 1919 p.
On November 11, 1918, World War I ended, due to the combined efforts of the AEF and the European allies.
see more Pershing and his men were celebrated as heroes.
General Pershing responds to the thanks of the U.
Congress, September 18, blackjack pershing apush />General Pershing served as Army Chief of Staff from 1921 to 1924.
He later oversaw a commission to settle a boundary dispute between Chile and Peru, and he served as a consultant when the United States entered World War II.
He also blackjack casino rules windsor a memoir, My Experiences in World War, which won the Pulitzer Prize for history in 1932.
On July click at this page, 1948, Pershing died in his sleep from complications of a stroke.
His body lay in state in the rotunda of the U.
Capitol, and an estimated 300,000 people came to see his funeral procession.
He was buried with honors at Arlington National Cemetery in Washington, DC.
Pershing during World War I.
The introduction of the AEF troops helped end World War I, and without the American soldiers, the European allies would have faced an uncertain outcome.
Over the course of his military career, General Pershing commanded several famous Americans, including fellow Missourian and futureGeneral George S.
Patton, General and later U.
Secretary of State George C.
Society Resources The following is a selected list of books, articles, and manuscripts about John Pershing in the research centers of.
Kremer, and Kenneth H.
continue reading of Missouri Biography.
The Black Regulars, 1866—1898.
Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961.
Pershing: General of the Armies.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
Louis Post-Dispatch, September 9, 1919.
My Experiences in the World War.
New York: Frederick A.
Until the Last Trumpet Sounds: The Life of General of the Armies John J.
New York: Wiley, 1998.
Guerrilla Warrior: The Early Life of John J.
New York: Scribner, 1973.
New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2006.
Kremer, and Kenneth H.
Dictionary of Missouri Biography.
Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999.
Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2006.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Columbia: University of Missouri Press, blackjack pershing apush />Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999.
Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.
Missouri Waltz: The Inside Story of the Pendergast Machine by the Man Who Smashed It.
Jefferson City, MO: Hawthorn, 1948.
New York: Lippincott, 1947.
A City Divided: The Racial Landscape of Kansas City, 1900-1960.
Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002.
References to Pershing can be found throughout the collection.
Crowder was the administrator of the Selective Service during World War I and an ambassador to Cuba.
Several letters written by Pershing holdem tournament strategy texas Crowder concerning Pancho Villa and World War I can be found in folder 1.
C3078 Recollections of John J.
Pershing, Pershing Memorial State Park, and World War I.
Outside Resources These links, which open in another window, will take you outside the Society's website.
Biography: John J. Pershing
John ("Black Jack") Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948), was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces.
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