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This chapter summarizes the individuals who have made major contributions to our knowledge of blackjack and what those contributions were.
You might deem it strange that I included this chapter in my Guide.
The reason I did is because I believe many of you reading this, and most other casino players, have little or no knowledge of the history of blackjack and no perspective daughter blackjack mulligan what came before.
They proved that blackjack offered the best odds of winning if players would follow a specific set of rules.
Their work was published in 1956 in the Journal of the American Statistical Association and later in the book, Winning Blackjack.
The casino industry panicked after the publication of the book and changed its playing rules even though the Ten Count was too difficult for average players to master.
After players boycotted the game, the casino industry reluctantly reinstated the original rules.
Not everyone, however, believed that card counting worked.
I covered in detail in Chapter 10.
Dubner presented his point-count system in 1962 to the Fall Joint Computer Conference in Las Vegas.
The Hi-Lo point-count system is still used today by a majority of card counters.
You will also need to download the gambling software to your computer.
The gambling site will have instructions on how to do this.
Note: Some sites also allow you to play using your web browser; again read the instructions on the site if this option is available.
JULIAN BRAUN Braun was the first to apply high-speed computers to the analysis of blackjack.
Braun was a computer programmer for IBM and he had access to the fastest mainframe computers of his time.
Braun tested and refined the original basic playing strategy.
OWENS Revere was a casino pit boss before he turned to playing blackjack professionally and teaching card counting to students.
He developed and promoted several card-counting systems including his Advanced Point Count A.
In 1969, he published his classic book, Playing Blackjack as a Business, considered by many to be one of the best tutorials on how to win at blackjack.
The book contained a series of simple-to-read-and-understand, first of their kindwhich made it easy for https://cetsolarstore.com/blackjack/super-4-progressive-blackjack-mohegan-sun.html players to learn the strategies.
CHARLES EINSTEIN, LANCE HUMBLE, AND CARL COOPER The earlier counting systems of Thorp, Dubner, Revere, and Braun treated the ace as a high card.
In 1968, Charles Einstein suggested treating the ace as zero, since for playing purposes, the ace acts like a low-value card.
He also suggested keeping a separate count of the ratio of aces to non-aces, and recommended departures to the basic playing strategy based upon the count.
Note: is covered in Chapter 10.
PETER GRIFFIN Griffin was a university professor who conducted detailed mathematical analyses of the game of blackjack.
His book, The Theory of Blackjack, was first published in 1978 and it has become the premier reference work on the mathematics of blackjack for students of the game.
Griffin was also credited with being the first person to determine that the casino had an overall advantage of about 2% over a typical customer playing blackjack during that era.
JOHN GWYNN Gwynn phrase. basic strategy blackjack opinion a university professor, computer programmer, and colleague of Peter Griffin, who conducted detailed computer studies of different aspects of the game with blackjack pioneers Griffin, Arnold Snyder, and Schlesinger.
AL FRANCESCO Francesco, a pseudonym, is the pioneer of the concept of blackjack team play, where teams of players pooled their bankrolls and used various card-counting techniques to win large sums of money from casinos around the world.
Other teams have used the team concept to win large amounts of money at blackjack, the most notable being a team of MIT students described in the best-selling book, Bringing Down the House, and in the.
KEN USTON Uston is considered to be the most famous blackjack player of all time.
His book Million Dollar Blackjack is a classic on how to win at blackjack.
They were eventually caught by the casinos and accused of using a cheating device.
IAN ANDERSEN Andersen was a high-stakes professional blackjack player.
In 1976 he wrote the classic book, Turning the Tables on Las Vegas, which described in detail new techniques to allow card counters to disguise their skills from casino bosses.
His sequel, Burning the Tables in Las Vegas, was published in 1999.
TOMMY HYLAND Tommy Hyland has a long record of managing successful card counting teams.
He began playing blackjack in 1979, and shortly thereafter, playing and managing blackjack teams have been his full time job.
The book contained the first count indices for surrender, and strategies for games whereas well as the level-3 Halves point count system.
In 1997, he launched www.
Wong also developedwhich he published in his classic book Casino Tournament Strategy.
His book Winning Without Counting contained the first published non-counting techniques to beat the game of blackjack, and his book Basic Blackjack contains the most comprehensive discussion of basic strategy.
Wong also published several newsletters on blackjack, the most famous, Current Blackjack News, which has been published continuously, since its inception in 1979.
ARNOLD SNYDER Beginning in 1981, Snyder published Blackjack Forum BJFa well-respected quarterly trade journal for professional gamblers.
Many new revelations in playing techniques for serious blackjack players first appeared in BJF.
Snyder was one of the first blackjack researchers to publish the importance of deck penetration i.
His Red Seven More info system was one of the first published unbalanced counting systems that appeared continue reading BJF and his book Blackbelt in Blackjack.
His understanding of the game of blackjack is unparalleled in this business.
He has studied and answered many thorny mathematical problems that have puzzled serious players for years, including optimal betting, camouflage, risk analysis, systems comparisons, and much more.
His click SCORE technique is used by serious players to compare the win potential of different games and counting systems, and his work on bankroll determination and risk of ruin calculations has become legendary.
Schlesinger also developed the most accurate basic strategy cards available for the public Ultimate Blackjack Strategy Cards.
He is a regular contributor to blackjack message boards, helping both novice and experienced players with questions that they have about the game, and he is a valued consultant to blackjack authors and researchers everywhere.
MIT BLACKJACK TEAM In the 1980s, a team of MIT students won millions playing blackjack using card counting and the team approach of play originally developed by Al Francesco.
The most famous players on the MIT Team were Johnny Chang, Mike Aponte, and Dave Irwin.
MAX RUBIN In 1994, Rubin published the innovative book Comp City, which showed for the first time how blackjack players can get more than their fair share of free casino comps by giving the perception that they are giving the casino a lot of action.
He also created and hosts the Blackjack Ball see Chapter 16.
Rubin has appeared on a number of gambling-related TV shows as an expert commentator, and as an analyst on blackjack tournament shows.
JAMES GROSJEAN is a well-respected and highly successful professional blackjack player, author of the books Beyond Counting: Exploiting Opinion pokerstars eu install think Games from Blackjack to Video Poker and Exhibit CAA, and the youngest person to be inducted into the Blackjack Hall of Fame.
He is also well known for his recent legal victories over several major casinos and a casino investigative company, for illegal detention.
Grosjean continues to play blackjack in casinos around the world.
Grosjean also writes a blog on www.
There are, to be sure, more innovators that have made a positive impact on the game of blackjack.
History will determine if they achieve the status of legends of the game.
OLAF VANCURA AND KEN FUCHS In 1998, Vancura and Fuchs developed the K-O Blackjack counting system, an unbalanced system that was much easier for average players to master than conventional balanced card-counting systems, because it eliminated the mental conversion of the running counting to true count.
They published their K-O Counting System in the book Knock-Out Blackjack, which became a best-seller.
MICHAEL DALTON Dalton is best known for his book Blackjack: A Professional Reference now called Encyclopedia of Casino Twenty-One and his Blackjack Review magazine, which was published from 1992 through 1998.
He currently maintains a public website for blackjack and poker players at www.
He is best known for his book Shuffle Tracking for Beginners and his development of the The Unbalanced Zen II counting system.
KAREL JANECEK Janecek is a well-respected blackjack mathematician, who developed the famous Statistical Blackjack Analyzer SBA software simulator that allowed blackjack researchers to conduct simulations of billions of hands in 15 minutes or less.
JOHN AUSTON Auston developed the Blackjack Risk Manager program that instantly performs blackjack risk-related statistical calculations, allowing skilled players to manage their bankroll risk.
NORM WATTENBERGER Wattenberger is one of the foremost blackjack software developers, and his software program is used by many researchers and serious players for analyzing virtually any problem associated with blackjack.
His software programs have incredible graphics and are used by many players to improve their game.
DAN PRONOVOST From 2003 to 2005, Pronovost developed Speed Count, a simple counting system for the masses of average blackjack players that allows them to easily play with an advantage over the casino.
As discussed in Chapter 10.
Pronovost was also the first to develop blackjack training programs for hand-held devices and PDAs, such as Palm OS and Professional blackjack PCs, and his blackjack training software is also available for Andriod and iPhones www.
To be sure, there are more players that have made major contributions to blackjack but space requirements limit how many I can acknowledge see Chapter 16.
As a result of his feat, Johnson became one of the most famous blackjack players in the world.
Decades earlier, Johnson quietly reaped extraordinary profits from casinos by executing several other advantage plays.
HISTORY OF HALL OF FAME Max Professional blackjack came up with the idea of the Blackjack Hall of Fame in 2002.
He polled scores of top players, authors, publishers, casino managers, and gaming consultants to determine the original 21 potential nominees.
Rubin then distributed ballots at the 2003 Blackjack Ball discussed in Chapter 16.
Each qualified attendee player or contributor voted for two nominees this will be reduced to one beginning in 2017.
Along with the absentee ballots sent to scores of top pros and others, the votes are tallied and the professional blackjack with the most votes is then enshrined into the BJHOF.
As of 2019, there are 26 continue reading in the BJHO; 17 are still living and many attend the Click Ball.
The Blackjack Hall of Fame is located at Barona Casino San Diego, CA.
Note: Barona also sponsors the Blackjack Ball and attendees also agree not to professional blackjack there as well.
BLACKJACK HALL OF FAME Below is the list of the honorees, the year they were inducted into the Hall of Fame, and a brief description of their accomplishments.
Note: Thanks to Max Rubin for some of the information contained in this chapter.
BLACKJACK BALL This chapter will give you an inside look at the annual event attended by blackjack pros from around the world, many of whom have made a fortune playing blackjack.
WHAT IS THE BLACKJACK BALL?
The Blackjack Ball is an professional blackjack gathering of professional blackjack players active and retiredwriters, mathematicians, and other contributors to our knowledge of blackjack.
The event has been held for the past 23 years, hosted by Max Rubin and recently co-hosted by Richard Munchkin and sponsored by Barona Casino.
Attendees are invited to the Ball and the event is held at a secret location.
Security is tight to prevent someone from the casino industry from infiltrating this gathering of blackjack pros many of whom want to remain anonymous.
Note: The champagne is consumed during the event and afterwards at a private party.
Additionally, some of the money is set aside to set up a legal entity so that the Blackjack Hall of Fame and Blackjack Ball will be able to continue forever.
Many players professional blackjack like to attend the Ball but getting invited is not easy because a committee of Hall of Famers reviews and decides who gets invited.
WHAT GOES ON AT THE BALL?
WHY IS A CASINO SPONSORING AN EVENT FOR CARD COUNTERS?
WHAT IS THE CALCUTTA?
The money collected professional blackjack each highest bidder for each team goes into a pool along with the 20 bucks each player contributes to seed the pot and create an overlay, which the advantage players in the room recognize, and compete for, in the bidding.
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE QUESTIONS ON THE WRITTEN TEST?
Score one point for each correct answer.
WHAT GOES ON AT THE TABLE COMPETITION?
The seven contestants that have the highest number of correct answers in the written test advance to the table competition.
Rubin has a professional blackjack table set up and he, or Richard Munchkin, acts as the dealer.
Here are two examples of the table contests.
Each player had to state what counting system he was going to use all used Hi-Loand then count down the two decks rapidly and state whether the rank of the removed card was high 10, J, Q, K, Alow 2 through 6or neutral 7, 8, 9.
As each contest is completed, one contestant is eliminated until you arrive at the last contest with only two remaining.
At some of the Balls, the winner also received a tip from James Grosjean on where a juicy advantage play exits could be anywhere in the world.
Subsequently, Rubin instituted the Munchkin Award smaller Cup for finishing in second place to honor Richard Munchkin, who also has been banned from the competition after winning three times.
WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THE BALL?
Afterwards, there is an optional private party at a different location with more food and drink.
This is another opportunity to make new acquaintances or schmooze with old acquaintances.
This get-together usually continues until the wee hours of the morning.
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The Truth about Backoffs as a Card Counter
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